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Glossary of Terms

ACGIH – American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists

acidic – having pH lower than typical neutral (pH of 7) – forms an acid when mixed with water

acute exposure – short-term exposure to a chemical, typically less than 14 days

AFR – Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials

Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials – off-specification or waste organic and inorganic materials use in cement kiln operations to provide  energy or material input to the cement manufacturing process

anthropogenic – relating to or resulting from the influence humans have on the natural world

asphyxiant – causing oxygen deficiency and suffocation

biological monitoring – analysis of biological materials, such as blood, urine, hair, or exhaled air, to obtain information about the long or short-term impact of chemical absorption on the physiological functions of an exposed individual

blending platform – a facility for receiving and processing AFR materials to generate products having specific thermal equivalent and process chemistry properties for use in the cement manufacturing process

BTU value – British Thermal Units; heat value of a material

carboys – a large container made of plastic or glass, usually protected by a wooden casing, used to hold corrosive liquids such as acids

caustic – a substance that can corrode or burn away other substances by chemical action

chromatographic finger print – a unique characteristic chemical “signature” that can be used to identify a particular waste stream or compound

contaminate – to make something impure, unclean, or polluted, especially by mixing harmful impurities into it or by putting it in contact with something harmful

CSS – combustible de substitution solide; impregnated sawdust composed of raw sawdust, solvents, inert materials, and miscellaneous organic compounds

defatting – chemicals capable of removing essential oils and fats, principally from the skin

general practices – work clothing and accessory equipment that will provide a recommended minimum level of personal protection in a typical industrial setting

impregnated sawdust – see CSS

Material Safety Data Sheets – specific information (e.g., composition, health and environmental risks, cleanup procedures) provided by the manufacturer or distributor of a chemical miscible – two or more liquids that can be thoroughly mixed together

MJ – megajoule; a unit of work or energy

MSDS – Material Safety Data Sheets

NIOSH – National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (United States)

Nomex® -- a registered trademark of DuPont for its brand of flame-resistant material

off-specification materials – products or materials that do not meet established quality control guidelines

PPE – Personal Protective Equipment

Personal Protective Equipment
– equipment or devices used to reduce exposure to chemical or other hazards in instances where engineering  or administrative controls are not feasible or effective

regulated compounds – substances or materials whose production, use, and disposal are determined by legally established rules, guidelines, or standards

Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction – the introduction of substances into a manufacturing process for the purpose of altering certain elements of the process chemistry to reduce emissions of specific pollutants

SNCR – Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction

Thermal energy equivalent
– mass of a substance whose thermal energy content equals that of a chosen standard material

Threshold Limit Value – guidance value for occupational exposure to a chemical; the TWA (time weighted average) is an 8-hour average concentration to which most workers can be exposed during an 8-hour workday, day after day, without harmful effects; the STEL (short term exposure limit) is a 15 minute exposure limit

TLV – Threshold Limit Value

Tyvek® -- a registered trademark of DuPont for its brand of protective material

VOC – volatile organic compounds

waste generator
– A facility or mobile source that emits pollutants into the air or releases hazardous waste into water or soil

waste stream – the total flow of solid waste from homes, businesses, institutions, and manufacturing plants that is recycled, burned, or disposed of in landfills, or segments thereof such as the "residential waste stream" or the "recyclable waste stream"

WHO – World Health Organization

World Health Organization – a specialized organization within the United Nations founded in 1948 for controlling the international spread of disease and reducing problems of environmental pollution 

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